1 Definition of lamps and lanterns
Any device that can distribute, transmit or transform the light emitted by one or more light sources, and includes the necessary components for supporting, fixing and protecting the light source (but not the light source itself), as well as necessary circuit auxiliary devices and combining them with Facilities for power connection.
2. Ordinary lamps:
Provides protection against accidental contact with live parts, but there are no special dustproof, solid foreign matter and waterproof grade lamps.
3. Movable lamps:
In normal use, the lamp can be moved from one place to another after being connected to the power source.
4. Fixed lamps:
The lamps cannot be easily moved from one place to another because they are so fixed that they can only be disassembled with the help of tools.
5. Recessed lamps:
The manufacturer specifies a luminaire that is fully or partially embedded in the mounting surface.
6. Live parts:
Conductive parts that may cause electric shock during normal use. The center conductor should be regarded as a live part.
7. EN safety extra-low voltage (SELV-safety extra-low voltage):
In a circuit that is isolated from the power supply by such as a safety isolation transformer or converter, the effective value of the AC voltage between conductors or between any conductor and the ground does not exceed 50V.
8. UL low-voltage lines:
Lines whose open circuit voltage does not exceed 30V RMS of AC voltage.
9. Basic insulation (EN):
Insulation is added to live parts to provide basic protection against electric shock. The withstand voltage should be above 2U+1000V (U: local grid voltage).
10. Supplementary insulation (EN):
The independent insulation added to the basic insulation is used to provide protection against electric shock when the basic insulation fails. The withstand voltage should be above 2U+1750V (single layer).
11. Double insulation (EN):
For the insulation composed of basic insulation and supplementary insulation, the withstand voltage value should be above 4U+2750V (that is, the sum of basic insulation and supplementary insulation withstand voltage).
12. Reinforced insulation (EN):
A reinforced insulation whose insulation effect is equivalent to that of double-layer insulation. Generally speaking, there is only one layer, but it can also be composed of multiple layers, and each layer cannot be clearly divided and measured separately. The withstand voltage should be above 4U+2750V.
13. CLASS O lamp (EN):
Lamps that only use basic insulation as protection against electric shock, without protective measures such as grounding.
14. CLASS I lamp (EN):
In addition to basic insulation for protection against electric shock, lamps with other protective measures such as grounding are also used.
15. CLASS II lamps (EN):
Lamps with double insulation or increased insulation as protection against electric shock. Its insulation effect does not depend on grounding or installation conditions.
16. CLASS III lamp (EN):
Use extra-low safety voltage (SELV) as protection against electric shock.
17. Normally flammable material:
The ignition temperature of the material is at least 200°C, and the material will not deform or decrease in strength at this temperature. For example, wood and wood-based materials with a thickness greater than 2mm.
18. Readily flammable material:
A material other than ordinary combustible materials and non-combustible materials. For example, wood fibers and wood-based materials with a thickness of less than 2%.
19. Non-combustible material:
Materials that cannot support combustion. For example, metal, cement, etc.
20: Type test:
The purpose of testing the type test samples is to check whether the design of a given product meets the requirements of the relevant standards, but whether the product after the type test meets the requirements of the standard in the production stage needs to be guaranteed by test reports and related documents.
2 Introduction to Bulb
1. Tungsten bulbs, including incandescent bulbs, quartz bulbs and halogen bulbs.
Commonly used incandescent bulbs are: Type A, B, C, G, R, T,
European bulb Base-E14, E27.
Among them, the UK can also use B15, B22;
North American bulb Base Type-E12, E17, E26.
E-Edison (Edison type screw port); B-Bayonet (Bayonet)
A. Commonly used quartz bulbs are Type T (JC), MR, JDR-C (GU10).
2. fluorescent tube.
Commonly used are FL (T5, T8, T12...), PL-S, PL-C, 2D and energy-saving lamps.
Note: For tungsten filament bulbs and FL fluorescent tubes, the usual method of expression is: the letter indicating the type (Type) plus Arabic numerals, for example: A19, B10, C7, G25, S11, T8..., where the Arabic numerals indicate the approximate bulb Diameter, such as the diameter of A19 bulb D=19*1/8”, multiply by 25.4 to get the bulb diameter in mm.
Special case: The number followed by the European standard R bulb is the actual size of the bulb, such as R50, R80...
Common bulb shapes: thread A bulb, bayonet A bulb, B bulb, G bulb, R bulb, R7s solar tube, JC, G9, G4.0
3 Lamp classification
(1) According to the installation method:
Movable lamps: table lamps, hanging wall lamps, floor lamps
Fixed lamps: ceiling lamps (ceiling lamps), chandeliers, wall lamps, recessed lamps, track lamps.
(2) Use environment:
1. EN specifications
1) Indoor use: Use symbols to indicate that the outer surface of metal parts should be treated with anti-corrosion;
2) Outdoor use: It is indicated by a symbol, and the outer surface of the metal parts should be treated with anticorrosion;
Special requirements: water spray test (that is, a minimum Ф3.2mm leak hole is required), and the inner and outer surfaces of the metal parts must be treated with anti-corrosion.
2. UL/CSA specification
1) DRY LOCATION: At most, the humidity is temporarily high. Such as living room, living room, kitchen and other indoor environments.
2) DAMP LOCATION: At least there will be periodic moisture liquefaction. Examples include indoor humid environments such as bathrooms and cellar freezers, as well as outdoor environments with upper covers in the balcony canopy and gate rain cover.
3) Wet environment (WET LOCATION): at least subject to raindrops or water splashes. For example, underground, underwater and all outdoor environments and indoor environments that can be exposed to water such as car washes.
Note: The main special requirements of the humid environment and the wet environment: water spray test (that is, the minimum leakage hole is required to be 3.2mm), the inner and outer surfaces of the metal parts must be treated with anti-corrosion, and the conductive contacts of the lamp holder must be corrosion resistant (copper end pieces).
(3) According to the standard category
1. North American system: Mainly UL/CSA specification system. The voltage is AC100V～127V, 60HZ, including some countries in North America and South America, as well as Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan and other former American colonies.
UL Lab. tests the products according to CSA standards, and can export them to Canada with cUL MARK if they are qualified.
Current UL FILE:
1) E219568—Mobile lamps;
2) E203552—fixed lamps;
2. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC-InternationalElectrotechnical Commission) system: includes most countries and regions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and Southeast Asia. The listed specifications are based on the reference to the EN60598 series of standards plus some special requirements (such as voltage, plug type, etc.) of the country (this region). my country joined the IEC in 1957 and is currently a member of the IEC Board of Directors, Executive Committee and Conformity Assessment Bureau. The national standard of the lighting industry GB7000 series corresponds to the IEC60598 series.
Among them, IEC (EN) products can also be subdivided into the following categories:
(1) According to the degree of protection against electric shock:
A. CLASS 0 light, no representative symbol.
Features: The power supply voltage is high voltage above 50V/single-layer insulation/no grounding.
B. CLASS I lamp, no representative symbol. Single-layer insulation structure, exposed touchable metal needs to be grounded. Some structures in CLASS I lamps may be CLASS II structures.
Features: The power supply voltage is high voltage above 50V/single layer insulation/grounded.
C. CLASS II lamp, indicated by the symbol "". Class II lamps usually have a double insulation structure, but some of the structures can be CLASS III structures (such as the low-voltage part after the transformer). (Built-in transformers should be designed as Class II lamps).
Features: The power supply voltage is high voltage above 50V/double insulation/no grounding.
D. CLASS III lights. It is indicated by the symbol "", the power supply is a safety extra low voltage SELV (external transformer plug-in lamp)
Features: The power supply voltage is low voltage below 50V/single-layer insulation/no grounding.
(2) According to the IP index of dust and solid foreign matter and moisture resistance: IPXX
The first digit: Dust and solid foreign matter index, divided into seven grades from 0-6. The larger the number, the stronger the ability to prevent dust and solid foreign objects.
0: No protection; 1: Prevent solid foreign objects larger than 50mm; 2: Prevent solid foreign objects larger than 12mm; 3: Prevent solid foreign objects larger than 2.5mm; 4: Prevent solid foreign objects larger than 1mm; 5: Prevent dust; 6: Dust dense
The second digit: Moisture resistance index, which is divided into nine levels from 0-8. The larger the number, the stronger the moisture resistance;
0: No protection; 1: Anti-drip (vertical); 2: Anti-drip (inclined 15 degrees); 3: Anti-sprinkling (60 degrees range); 4: Anti-splashing; 5: Anti-spraying; 6: Anti-violent Sea waves; 7: Anti-soaking influence; 8: Anti-diving influence.
Note: 1) The protection level of ordinary lamps is IP20, and it is generally not marked.
2) The protection grade IP# of outdoor lamps is generally IP23 or above, and it needs to be marked.
(3) According to the flammability of the installation surface:
A. Only suitable for lamps directly installed on non-combustible surfaces, indicated by the symbol "".
B. Lamps suitable for installation on ordinary combustible surfaces are indicated by the symbol "".
C. It can be installed on common flammable surfaces and where the heat insulation material may cover the lamps (ie embedded), it is indicated by "".
4 main electrical components
The current carrier (conductor) must be copper, copper alloy, nickel alloy, or stainless steel.
Current-carrying parts (conductors) must be made of copper or copper alloys containing at least 80% copper or materials with at least the same conductivity.
1. Lamp holder:
1.1 UL/cUL/CAS specifications (AC120V 60HZ)
The specifications are E26, E17, E12, ceramic and bakelite lamp holders are mostly used, aluminum lamp holders cannot be used. E26 lamp holders are mostly with switches, E17, E12 lamp holders do not have switches. UL certification is required.
1.2 EN specifications (AC220V～230V 50HZ specifications are E14, E27 threaded bases, mostly plastic bases, ceramic bases are also available, but bakelite bases are rare. E27 bases are generally resistant to temperature of 210 ℃ (60W or below), 100W generally used Ceramic lamp holder. Generally the lamp holder does not have a switch. VDE or corresponding certification is required
1.3 SAA/BS specifications (AC240V50HZ) commonly used B22 and B15 bayonet caps, regardless of polarity, also use E27, E14 threaded caps, generally without a switch.
1.4 GB specification (AC220V50HZ) commonly used E14, E27 threaded lamp holders, there are also B22 bayonet lamp holders. CQC certification is required.
2.1 UL/cUL/CAS specifications:
A. Rotary switch: such as lamp head switch, base switch.
B. Midway switch: The length from midway switch to outlet position is not less than 500px.
C. Rectangular toggle switch: It is mostly used for quartz lamps, and some desk lamps are also used. The general installation requirements are top opening and bottom closing, front opening and closing, left opening and right closing, but the principle is to meet customer requirements.
D. Dimmer: There is a rotary type: that is, gradually from dark to bright, stepless dimming. Three-position type: weakly bright → bright → off
E. Touch switch: four-position → weak light → bright → strong light → off
2.2 EN specifications
A, the lamp holder push switch
B. The installation direction of the base pull switch is the same as UL requirements
C. The installation direction of the square toggle switch is the same as UL requirements
D. Midway switch (single-pole system): Generally, the length of midway switch to outlet position is not less than 500px;
Foot switch (push switch or dimmer): Generally, the distance from the outlet position to the foot switch is not less than 750px.
2.3 SAA/BS specifications
SAA switches generally use double-pole switches, sub-base switches and midway switches (double-pole systems), except for special requirements from customers; BS uses single-pole switches, which are the same as VDE requirements.
2.4 GB specifications
Use CQC, CCC-certified switches, push switches for desk lamps and clamp lamps, and the length of the switch to the outlet position is not less than 500px; the floor lamp uses a foot switch; the distance from the outlet position to the foot switch is not less than 750px.
3. power cable:
3.1 UL/cUL/CAS specifications:
Generally use SPT-2 transparent power cord plugs with small and small pins. The insert material is required to be copper nickel-plated. The marked line is connected to the small pin for the L pole, and the striped line is connected to the big pin for the N pole. The switch must be cut off. Wires. There are also black plug wires, flat plugs with double straight feet, large and small feet, the outer diameter of the N pole wire is thicker and has straight ribs, and the outer diameter of the L pole wire is thin and smooth. Black and white leads are used inside the lamp body. Generally, the black lead is connected to the L pole, and the white lead is connected to the N pole.
The length of the outlet is no less than 6 feet from the outlet to the plug. The company stipulates that it is no less than 1.80m. The wiring method generally uses a closed-end connector (nipple) and screw-in connector (toothpaste cover).
3.2 EN specifications
Two-core double insulated wire, two-pin round plug. There are brown wire and blue wire inside, brown wire connected to L pole, blue wire connected to N pole; three-core double insulated wire, three-pin round plug, brown, blue and yellow-green two-color leads inside, of which yellow-green The two-color wire is the ground wire, and the live wire must be controlled when the switch is installed. The length of the power cord is 1.85m. The wiring method generally uses a terminal block.
3.3 SAA/BS specifications
SAA uses double insulated wires with plugs. The plugs are two-piece flat-leg figure eight (regardless of size). BS uses double insulated wires with BS specifications without plugs.
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